Prostaglandin E2 concentrations determined with the HTRF PGE2 kit
Chicken thrombocytes are equivalent in hemostatic function to mammalian platelets. Platelets are enucleated components of mammalian blood, while thrombocytes are nucleated blood leukocytes of chickens. Platelets and thrombocytes share characteristics that contribute to innate immunity. Experiments were conducted to determine if thrombocytes could respond in vitro to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella minnesota through Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). The aim was to activate the signal pathways leading to expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and to production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Chicken thrombocytes were found to express TLR4, and LPS-induced an increase in thrombocyte mRNA expression of IL-6 and COX-2 with release of PGE2 into culture media. An increase of COX-2 and PGE2 due to LPS stimulation was inhibited by MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, but IL-6 expression was unaffected by PD98059. The IKK-2 inhibitor BMS345541 inhibited IL-6 and COX-2 with reduction of PGE2 concentrations. Therefore, the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway activates expression of COX-2 and ultimately PGE2 production, but this pathway has little or no influence on IL-6 expression in thrombocytes. The NF-kappaB pathway also influences COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, and it is a primary activation signaling cascade for IL-6 gene expression in chicken thrombocytes. Thrombocytes represent a major component of the innate immune system of chickens in response to LPS and possibly other microbial products.
Mol Immunol. 2008;45(4):1001-8