Hennen S, Wang H, Peters L, Merten N, Simon K, Spinrath A, Blättermann S, Akkari R, Schrage R, Schröder R, Schulz D, Vermeiren C, Zimmermann K, Kehraus S, Drewke C, Pfeifer A, König GM, Mohr K, Gillard M, Müller CE, Lu QR, Gomeza J, Kostenis E.
Institute for Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Sci Signal. 2013;6(298):ra93.
Replacement of the lost myelin sheath is a therapeutic goal for treating demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR17, which is phylogenetically closely related to receptors of the "purinergic cluster," has emerged as a modulator of CNS myelination. However, whether GPR17-mediated signaling positively or negatively regulates this critical process is unresolved. We identified a small-molecule agonist, MDL29,951, that selectively activated GPR17 even in a complex environment of endogenous purinergic receptors in primary oligodendrocytes. MDL29,951-stimulated GPR17 engaged the entire set of intracellular adaptor proteins for GPCRs: G proteins of the Gαi, Gαs, and Gαq subfamily, as well as β-arrestins. This was visualized as alterations in the concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and inositol phosphate, increased Ca(2+) flux, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), as well as multifeatured cell activation recorded with label-free dynamic mass redistribution and impedance biosensors. MDL29,951 inhibited the maturation of primary oligodendrocytes from heterozygous but not GPR17 knockout mice in culture, as well as in cerebellar slices from 4-day-old wild-type mice. Because GPCRs are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention, inhibiting GPR17 emerges as therapeutic strategy to relieve the oligodendrocyte maturation block and promote myelin repair in MS.